The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics. A formal evaluation of students writing . “Writing is a key skill in second language learning and all teachers need to evaluate their students’ writing abilities. The issues surrounding the assessment of. Sara Cushing Weigle – Assessing – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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This is the kind of writing that Bereiter and Scardamalia call ‘natural’ or ‘unproblematic,’ as it can be done by any fluent speaker of a language who has a grasp of the writing system. Weogle test scores following instruction could be considered evidence of construct validity of the test, particularly if a control group who was not given instruction showed no improvement on the test during the same time period.
Beginning with a discussion of the nature of writing as writlng a social and cognitive activity, the author offers a thorough and critical review of the relevant research and theories of writing ability that provides the grounding for the rest of the book.
Behzad added it Jun 16, For example, Hughes argues that in general language proficiency testing, writing tasks that require examinees to use their own content knowledge should not be used, stating that ‘in language testing, we are not normally interested in knowing whether students are creative, imaginative, or even intelligent, have wide general knowledge, or have good reasons for the opinions they happen to hold.
Bachman and Palmer, This is a useful distinc- tion because we are frequently interested in people’s ability to use The nature of writing ability 19 language both for real-time interaction and for creating coherent texts without the aid of a conversation partner.
Explore the Home Gift Guide. Knowledge telling is similar to impromptu speaking in that it involves very little planning or revision. Motivational and affective factors play a role as well. Assessment involves taking stock of what is needed to write the letter – for example, knowledge about the topic, the form of such letters, the appropriate level of formality, and so on – as well as one’s own linguistic resources for writing the letter.
Thus, as the role of writing in second-language edu- cation increases, there is an ever greater demand for valid and reliable ways to test writing ability, both for classroom use and as a predictor of future professional or academic success. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. The Hayes model, while complete in many respects, has two short- comings with respect to second-language writing. Proficiency sample project by M Apodaco, In order to write good English, I knew that I had to be myself, which actually meant not to be my Chinese self.
In first-language settings, the ability to write well has a very close relationship to academic and professional success. Furthermore, changes in the instructional practices of individual teachers may be mediated by such influences as the teacher’s personal beliefs, institutional requirements, prevailing Basic considerations in assessing writing 55 social, political, and economic issues Wall,along with student expectations and the availability of appropriate instructional mate- rials Alderson and Hamp-Lyons, There was a problem filtering reviews right now.
While topical knowledge is sometimes included in a construct defi- nition, personal characteristics and affect are usually explicitly ex- cluded from the construct, and we try to avoid inadvertently measuring these factors in a language test. In developing appropriate writing tests for these different populations, then, it will be important to keep these differences in mind.
All other differences between spoken and written texts either arise from these two fundamental differences, or can be ascribed to the fact that writing and speaking are for the most part used in different contexts and for different purposes.
The necessity of devoting cognitive resources to issues of language may mean that not as much attention can be given to higher-order issues of content and organization, since the capacity of working memory is limited.
Want to Read saving…. The next quality of usefulness discussed by Bachman and Palmer is authenticity, defined as ‘the degree of correspondence of the charac- teristics of a given language test task to the features of a target language use TLU task’ Bachman and Palmer, Simi- larly, the role of affect in communication is important to consider in designing a test, not because we are interested in measuring affect, but because affect is involved in any language use situation and must therefore be accounted for.
Heba Alsayyad marked it as to-read Aug 20, Another problematic area in terms of authenticity is English for academic purposes, one of the most common arenas for testing writing. In writing, then, more time and energy can be spent on cognitive activities such as planning and information retrieval, as there is less communicative pressure to con- tinuously produce utterances Grabowski, Functional sarx of written language B.
Performance assessments thus differ from traditional paper-and- pencil tests in the degree assesssing which they represent or simulate behavior in the real world.
That is, if we cannot feel confident that our test gives consistent results, we cannot be sure that the inferences and deci- sions we make on the basis of test results will be appropriate and fair. The writing of most children and adolescents falls into this category.
English writing was described as a straight line, while ‘Oriental’ discourse was symbolized by an inward-pointing spiral, for example. A useful summary of some of the differences between speaking and writing can be found in Brown Knowledge of organizing schemes top-level discourse structure G. What we write, how we write, and who we write to is shaped by social convention and by our history of social interaction. Strategic competence is thus considered to be a general i.
I have found this book a superb place to start researching a theis on writing assessment. In other words, affect can have a facil- itating or a debilitating effect on language performance, and if we want test takers to perform at their best, it is important to gauge the likely affective response of examinees to test tasks.
Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Finally, the relationship between writing and second-language proficiency is discussed. Furthermore, one’s personal characteristics e. Mastery of this standard system is an important prerequisite of cultural and educational participation and the maintenance of one’s rights and duties. The remainder of this section deals briefly with these issues. Charles Alderson and Lyle F.
They provide each other with a continual source of cues – cues to proceed, cues to stop, cues to elaborate, cues to shift topic, and a assessin variety of cues that stir memory. What will we do with the information that we get from the test? Classification of written text types One important implication of the variety of background, experience, and needs of second-language writers is that the types of writing produced by these different groups vary considerably as well.